ruby mining in myanmar

Rubies of Burmese origin have long been considered the finest quality in the world. A historical study of the British conquest of Burma in the late 1880s. The list is not comprehensive, but a compilation of the some interesting gemological information that has often been forgotten or overlooked. Status of Ruby and Sapphire Mining in the Mogok Stone Tract, R.E. It … 75-76, (1833). Photo: EPA. The Ruby Mines of Mogok, Burma, D.L. The geological setting and ruby mining operations around Mogok are summarized. 2, pp. Burmese rubies are associated with quality because of their intense color, perfect quantities of silk, and strong fluorescence . Burma: An Important Source of Precious and Semi-precious Stones, A.B. Myanmar is the only source of Jadeite Jade and the only source of Imperial Jadeite in the world. Myanmar reportedly produces more than 80% of the world’s rubies, but thanks to decades of isolation under the former junta and restrictions on access for foreigners to mining areas like Mogok, the trade remains opaque and mired in controversy. Rubies from Mogok in Myanmar (Burma) have been prized throughout history. Rubies and the Ruby Mines of Mogok, G.L. The Ruby Trade of Mandalay, Author unknown, Jewelers' Circular, Vol. The Ruby Mines of Burmah, Author unknown, Chambers’s Journal, Vol. These mines were famous for producing about 90 percent of all pigeon blood rubies. This article presents a geologic description of the gem deposits near Mogok. In 2008 Congress passed the Tom Lantos JADE act, banning the importation of Burmese rubies and other precious gems into the US in reaction to the military regime’s numerous human rights violations. “The ruby mines are getting deeper and deeper, so now we must use 20 men for the work that formerly 10 men could do,” said Dr U Kyaw Khine, the director of the Kyaw Win Tun Gem Company. Because of this, mining in the Mogok area has become increasingly difficult. Similar articles by the same author were published in 1889 in the Revue Britannique, pp. Adams, Bulletin of the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, No. 18, pp. This article presents a detailed description of the geologic setting and ruby mining operations in the Mogok region. The Burma Ruby Mines, Author unknown, Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 335–342 and No. Graham, Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, Vol. This report describes a resurgence of mining activity in the Mogok area following several decades of limited gem production. 358-366, (1905). Brown and J.W. Some dealers refer to top quality rubies as “Burmese” regardless of where they were mined, although this practice is frowned upon.   Myanmar’s Tatmadaw has been launching air strikes in the gold and mining region inside Kachin state’s Tanai township in recent months. Fitz-Gerald, Technical World Magazine, Vol. 1-7, (1915). Mogok and other villages in the region have been famous since ancient times for their precious gem stones. 8, pp. Only in terms of quality Mogok rubies are best. 4, pp. Most of the ruby mining in Myanmar takes place in the nation’s mountainous Mogok area which has mines with large ruby deposits. 6, pp. Comprehensive CAD/CAM For Jewelry Certificate, Advanced Laboratory-Grown Diamond Seminar. Cowan, Mining and Scientific Press, Vol. 187-190, (1873). A brief description of ruby mining around Mogok is presented. This article reviews the occurrence of gem rubies, as well as the history and mining of rubies around Mogok. 1, Chap. 2, No. 7-9, (1991) and No. After the British annexed Burma in 1886, Mogôk’s mines were operated by a foreign enterprise known as The Burma Ruby Mines Company. The exact date when rubies were first discovered in Mogok is unknown. This complex geology consists mainly of metamorphic schist, gneiss and marble (ruby and spinel-bearing) along with igneous intrusions (granite, pegmatite, syenite, leucogranite) and skarn. 151-228, (1896). GIA World Headquarters Stones lighter than this are called pink sapphire. A similar article was published in two parts in the Lapidary Journal, Vol. The red stones from there are prized for their purity and hue. The Mogok Stone Tract has produced spinel, apatite, scapolite, moonstone, zircon, garnet, iolite and amethyst gemstones. Adams and R.P.D. The Rubies of Burma and Associated Minerals: Their Mode of Occurrence, Origin and Metamorphoses – A Contribution to the History of Corundum, C.B. Carlsbad, CA 92008 Iyer, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Vol. 4, pp. RUBY MINING IN BURMA (MYANMAR) : Corundum has been found in a number of different areas of Burma. A book that contains a short chapter on the mines in the vicinity of Mogok, including the workings of the Burma Ruby Mines Ltd. In May 2012, after the parliamentary election of. 6, pp. These articles by the famous Swiss gemologist describe the mining and buying and selling of rubies at Mogok. 425-430, (1906). Prices for Burmese rubies skyrocketed as the number of stones for sale was limited to items imported before the act. It also reviews efforts made to pacify the countryside and its people. 1-8, (1902). Conquest and Concession: The Case of the Burma Ruby Mines, R.V. 70, No. This photo taken on May 16, 2019 shows miners arriving with equipment on motorcycles at a ruby mining site in Mogok, north of Mandalay. 31-34, (1936). 5, pp. Burman Rubies, Author unknown, The Mineral Collector, Vol. 10-25, (1828). © 2019 The Natural Ruby Company. Among other characteristics, they are usually color zoned . The Burma Ruby Mines, A. Williams, “The Romance of Mining,” Chap. Among other characteristics, they are usually, In recent years, considerable movement has been made towards democracy in Burma. 1, pp. A description is given of the simple mining methods used to recover ruby from near-surface rocks in the Mogok area. 521–525. The demand for Burmese rubies has existed for centuries. The Mogok Stone Tract in Upper Burma (Myanmar) has been known to produce exceptional rubies since centuries, with records of mining activities dating back to at least the 16thcentury. 418–422 and No. Stokes, "Mines and Minerals of the British Empire," pp. 3, (July-September), pp. Where Rubies are Found, Author unknown, Round the World, Vol. A short report on the operations of the Burma Ruby Mines Ltd. The Great Corundums - Part II: The Pigeon-Blood Rubies of Burma, D.S.M. “The current ruby mining areas are rather exhausted, as we have been digging them for severa! The author discusses several different mines were discovered, including the ruby mines near Mogok. No doubt the first humans to settle the area found rubies and spinels in the rivers and streams. years,” he said. The country accounts for most of global jade and ruby production. A book that contains a brief summary of the ruby mines, which came under British control in the mid-1880s. 8, No. 29-31, (1904). 11, No. Tiffany’s purchased the entire Cowee Valley in the 1890’s, and then two other companies, American Prospecting & Mining Co. and US Ruby Mining Co., also began work hoping to find the source of the extremely high grade rubies and sapphires found within the corundum mines. Strover, Chemical News, Vol. Myanmar’s mining sector is closely linked to its evolving economy and shifting political landscape. Kane, E.J. Kunz (1915) mentions a Burmese legend from the ruby mines: According to this legend, in the first century of our era three eggs were laid by a female naga, or serpent; out of the first was born Pyusawti, a king of Pagan; out of the second came an Emperor of China, and out of the third were emitted the rubies of the Ruby Mines. Fact Myanmar's Ruby Gems Mining. 544-554, (1957). 3, pp. The Ruby Mines of Upper Burma, Mrs. H.C. Paget, Cornhill Magazine, Vol. A Short Description of the Mines of Precious Stones in the District of Kyatpyin, in the Kingdom of Ava, P.G. Official exports of rubies from the country are valued at over $87.4 million while the undocumented exports are possibly more. Today, these mines are virtually depleted, sending the price of prized Burmese rubies sky high. A popular account of a visit to the Mogok Stone Tract in the late 1800s. 1, pp. Many ruby crystals have dark bluish interiors which turn red when heat treatments are applied. An Account of a Map of Koshanpri, F. Hamilton, Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, Vol. 187, No. Mogôk ruby production and trade all but ceased for a time, although large quantities of stones were smuggled out of the country and sold in Thailand. There isn’t a great deal of fine quality rubies coming out of Burma right now. The article presents a detailed description of the gem mining area around Mogok. 22, pp. A two-part article that describes the ruby mining around Mogok based on a visit by the author. 2, No. “Ruby and Sapphire,” R.W. Official exports of rubies from the country are valued at over $87.4 million while the undocumented exports are possibly more. The Mogok area, along with other parts of the country, came under control of the British in late 1886, when investigations of the geological setting of the ruby occurrence began and gem mining became more organized. . Where Rubies are Pebbles, F. Thatcher, The World To-Day, Vol. 2, pp. All other color varieties of gem-quality corundum are referred to as sapphire. Myanmar produces some of the finest rubies, sapphire and jade in the world. In the 1960s, a military coup destabilized Burma, and the country’s borders were closed. 1, pp. Several photographs of the area are shown. A report of a trip to the gem-mining areas of the country is provided by the author. Calhoun, Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. All rights reserved. A similar report in McGill University Publications, Series 5, No. Translation of one of first reported visits to the mines near Mogok; the original document was written as a letter by an Italian Jesuit missionary sometime before 1833. Kane and R.C. Historically, gems have been extracted from alluvial fields, limestone caves, open trenches in hillsides, and tunnels in host rock. On the Ruby Mines near Mogok, Burma, R. Gordon, Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, Vol. In May 2012, after the parliamentary election of Aung San Suu Kyi, the United States lifted numerous economic sanctions against Burma. 127, No. A City Built on Rubies: The Marvelous Mines of Mogok, Author unknown, Appleton's Booklover's Magazine, Vol. 288-289, (1915). The owner of the SP Bakery, a well-known chain of snack stores, has been captured by unidentified armed men in the ruby mining town of Mogok, where hundreds have taken shelter following recent fighting in nearby villages. The authors describe the minerals found in the Mogok gem deposits, including chrysoberyl, sillimanite, nepheline, sodalite, forsterite, lepidolite, muscovite, topaz and cassiterite. 756-761, and the Library Magazine, Vol. George, Burma Gazetteer, Vol. These include Sagyin, Thabeitkyin, Naniazeik, Mogok and, most recently, Möng Hsu. 3-31, (1957). This differs from the deep deposits in Myanmar, which was traditionally where the world sourced its rubies. 28, No. 62-63, (1909). Spaulding, Gems & Gemology, Vol. Gemstones Formed by Low-Pressure Regional Metamorphism: The Ruby Deposits of Mogok, Burma, P.C. Wynne, Transactions of the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Vol. A popular article that describes the geological setting of the mountainous Mogok district, which lies within a belt of high-grade metamorphic rocks including marbles that host many of the ruby deposits. 12, No. Dr. James Shigley is a distinguished research fellow at the Gemological Institute of America in Carlsbad, California. Mining is carried out in open pits and underground tunnels. 166-167, (1887). G. Bosshart, E.A Burma respectively site you agree to our revised Privacy Notice Terms. That of the ruby Mines near Mogok of ideas over time Thu/AFP Photo ) this Photo taken … gem in... 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