decus et tutamen meaning

Imperial College London has dropped a 112-year-old Latin motto from its emblem after students complained about its links to colonialism. Quite simply, there is no good or predictable way for judges to do this.”). While KLS recognize this problem in passing, I think their treatment is too superficial to assuage concerns.37×37. Many of the medieval oaths that KLS describe, for example, were not backward-looking precommitments anchored in an earlier-written, lawlike norm. As Titania McGrath might say this motto “is a reminder of a historical … The definitions are: "decus" - virtue, honour or glory; and "tutamen" - defence or protection, thus the meaning is said to be "honour and defence". . 1, 31 (2015). Q. I think there is reason to doubt that this index provides a safe or sure contemporary footing for judgment of faithful execution. the narrow point pertinent here is that the historical record cited in the article does not necessarily support KLS’s originalist conclusion as unequivocally as they imply. As they rightly note, these are “probably superfluous” when it comes to the presidency. There was a debate in the Founding period about the scope of judicial discretion within Founding-era theories of interpretation. The ties of loyalty on the one hand, and the necessities of famine on the other, kept the besieged wavering between the alternatives of glory and infamy. See, e.g., Dahl, supra note 64, at 355. . 10 watching. [ too-ta´men] ( L.) a protective covering or structure. At the threshold, KLS concede that the contemporaneous evidence of how “faithful execution” would have been understood in the late eighteenth century is quite thin. Pol. "DECUS ET TUTAMEN" is a Latin inscription used on the edge of current British One Pound coin and many older British coins. I am not sure, however, that an orientation toward legalism precludes the possibility of motivated reasoning in contestable cases. DECUS ET TUTAMEN. At a minimum, this source of legitimating authority provides a buffer against public criticism based on violations of faithful execution. For an argument that a broad construal of impeachment is consistent with the lessons of historical and comparative constitutional law, and not likely to produce destabilizing consequences, see Tom Ginsburg, Aziz Huq & David Landau, Designing Presidential Impeachment (Oct. 9, 2019) (unpublished manuscript) (on file with the Harvard Law School Library). sit sine labe decus let honour stainless be. Carl Wennerlind, The Death Penalty as Monetary Policy: The Practice and Punishment of Monetary Crime, 1690–1830, 36 Hist. Today, however, the American religious landscape is considerably more fragmented.57×57. . decus et tutamen. Last but not the least, micro-text in Latin phrase ‘DECUS ET TUTAMEN’ meaning ‘An Ornament and a Safeguard’ is etched along the inner rim of the coin. It was intended to reassure users that the edge of the coins had not been clipped, but could also be taken to mean that the monarch depicted was also an ornament and a safeguard. knowledge is the adornment and protection of the Empire. Robert A. Dahl, Myth of the Presidential Mandate, 105 Pol. J. Churchill 1696)). It is also reasonable to anticipate that ambiguity will be more likely identified and argued over in cases where the stakes are higher — as philosophers of language have stressed indeed occurs in everyday conversational contexts.40×40. Professor Robert Dahl identifies President Andrew Jackson’s belief that “the President was an immediate and direct representative of the People” as an inflection point.64×64. Digital Equipment Corporation User Society (http://www.decus.org/) Showing page 1. Schwarz Jr. & Aziz Z. Huq, Unchecked and Unbalanced: Presidential Power in a Time of Terror 153 (2007) (arguing the power to “ignore statutes passed by Congress . In this latter positive aspect, KLS suggest, the two Faithful Execution Clauses are intended to work as self-executing prophylaxis against both dereliction from statutory obligation and self-dealing. at 2128; see id. Craig, supra note 4, at 166; Wennerlind, supra note 4, at 135. As a result, their claim about the constraining effect of the Faithful Execution Clauses is underwhelming as a practical matter. First, the clauses must have imposed some determinate constraint on officeholders at the time of their enactment. As KLS lucidly explain, the eighteenth-century practice of oath-taking was inseparable from broadly held views about religiosity. I think there are three points to be made to that query. and Abl.Abs.! Wilson’s statement came in the context of an examination of the problem of legislative overreaching, which he characterized as “of all kinds of despotism . To the contrary, we might expect that presidential candidates (especially nonincumbents) would campaign against the prevailing grain of policy commitments embodied in law. DECUS ET TUTAMEN, meaning 'An Ornament and a Safeguard' Used on British, English and Northern Ireland designs. On Evelyn’s role in making the suggestion, see Evelyn, supra note 1, at 225, and Katharine Gibson, Samuel Cooper’s Profiles of King Charles II and Thomas Simon’s Coins and Medals, 30 Master Drawings 314, 318 n.17 (1992). The idea that ex ante legislation might provide a sure and certain reference point for faithful execution, moreover, may be less suited to the current legislative landscape than it was to the legislative landscape of the late eighteenth century. decus et tutamen Phrase Meaning: an ornament and a safeguard. Clark, Religion and Political Identity: Samuel Johnson as a Nonjuror, in Samuel Johnson in Historical Context 79, 81 (Jonathan Clark & Howard Erskine-Hill eds., 2002)). This is Latin for “An ornament and a safeguard”, from Virgil’s Aeneid. The £1 coin listed on eBay (Image: eBay) But the seller claimed the words were 'upside down', meaning you would need to hold the coin with the Queen's head facing downwards. Craig, supra note 4, at 166. The College's motto, coined in 1908, is ‘Scientia imperii decus et tutamen’ which can be translated as ‘Scientific knowledge, the crowning glory and the safeguard of the empire’. £1.49. KLS take too much for granted when they assume that their (merely encyclopaedical!) See Frederick A.O. Latin. Coin-clipping was the act of shaving off a small portion of a precious metal coin for profit. One strand of KLS’s interpretation in particular is obviously relevant to this stabilizing function: the positive duty of faithful execution that entails the “limitation, subordination, and proscription” of executive activity contrary to statutory command.16×16. As a recent Foreword in this journal noted, “we do not uniformly follow original understandings even to clarify vague provisions of the Constitution.” David A. Strauss, The Supreme Court, 2014 Term — Foreword: Does the Constitution Mean What It Says?, 129 Harv. This means that they come to office committed to an agenda that is at odds, at least at some points, with the substantive obligation of faithful execution. decus et tutamen An ornament and a safeguard. For example, a Justice recently acknowledged that the threshold of linguistic precision necessary to render a text “clear” is itself uncertain — a perception that (so far as I am aware) the Framers did not share.48×48. But even setting aside such theoretical quibbles, there is a second, more mundane problem with KLS’s argument from historical context as it pertains to the President’s constraint by statutory law. The problem is that the Faithful Execution Clauses leave open the question of how statutes should be interpreted. The edge inscription DECUS ET TUTAMEN means "An ornament and a safeguard", a quote from Virgil's Aeneid. Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. John Evelyn, Numismata 225 (London, Benj. tutamen. Let us put to one side these objections. DECUS ET TUTAMEN, meaning 'An Ornament and a Safeguard' Used on British, English and Northern Ireland designs. Vocabulary Groups: Not part of any Vocabulary Group. My focus here is not on the distinctive problem of constitutional creation, but on the propensity of the Faithful Execution Clauses to operate as self-executing constraints on the use of official authority. at 2117. As Professor Ryan Doerfler has recently reminded us, individuals often use a single phrase to communicate different things to different audiences.38×38. Inscription on British one-pound coins. I am not as certain as KLS that historical context in the detailed and granular sense they mean is always relevant to constitutional meaning in practice or in theory. Found 0 sentences matching phrase "decus et tutamen".Found in 0 ms. On the other hand, its positive connotation connotes a complex duty of fidelity.13×13. Id. Inscription: Decus Et Tutamen Language: Latin at 2155 (alterations in original) (citations omitted); see also id. See Kent, Leib & Shugerman, supra note 11, at 2128. Tooke 1697) (emphasis omitted). DECUS ET TUTAMEN is taken from the Aeneid (Book V, line 262). A phrase from the Aeneid of Virgil. Second, the presidency today has a popular, democratic character that belies the original design of the office. See also Aziz Z. Huq, The Function of Article V, 162 U. Pa. L. Rev. One reading of the evidence that KLS present, indeed, is that the oath was the primary device for enforcing faithful execution.55×55. Pronunciation of Decus Et Tutamen with 2 audio pronunciations, 8 translations and more for Decus Et Tutamen. Kent, Leib & Shugerman, supra note 11, at 2184. and consider how much traction this possibility generates today. Numismata was “a lengthy monograph on numismatics that also, incidentally, provide[d] the first attempt at a history of England told entirely through coins and medals.” Sean Silver, John Evelyn and Numismata: Material History and Autobiography, 31 Word & Image 331, 335 (2015). Given the frequency of such polysemantic statements, Doerfler argues that it will “often make sense for Congress to enact one multi-setting provision rather than two (or three or four) provisions that are setting-specific.”39×39. With the Nine Years’ War inflating silver prices in the Low Countries and France, clipping helped contribute to the British currency’s deflationary spiral.3×3. More information, Copyright © Peter Waldert 2016-2021. at 2186. It is not safe to assume that an earlier generation — bereft of Wikipedia, digitized archives, or the modern research library — would have had access to the full gamut of materials KLS showcase. Free postage. at 2136. A constitution will not long survive if it creates incentives for those in political power adverse to the persistence of its own institutional forms.15×15. On the first point, my negative conclusion flows from an internal critique of KLS’s evidence. As of 2020 we have updated the crest to no longer include this motto on any new materials. decus et tutamen: an ornament and a safeguard: A phrase from the Aeneid of Virgil. Aeneas is handing out prizes to the captains of the winning ships. The motto here refers to the fact that the inscription serves both as a decorative feature and as a safeguard against … Numismata was “a lengthy monograph on numismatics that also, incidentally, provide[d] the first attempt at a history of England told entirely through coins and medals.” Sean Silver, John Evelyn and Numismata: Material History and Auto… Id. tuta´mina o´culi the protective appendages of the eye, such as the eyelids, eyelashes, and so on. A second difficulty arises from larger constitutional structure. The £1 coin listed on eBay (Image: eBay) But the seller claimed the words were 'upside down', meaning you would need to hold the coin with the Queen's head facing downwards. First, there is no obvious enforcement mechanism for violations of the faithful execution obligation. 473, 473 (1996). Name : Email : Location : Send Clear #254 Monday 23 November 2020 06:38:08 PM. Kent, Leib & Shugerman, supra note 11, at 2117 n.30. ; Slingsby introduced the idea of stamping the inscription " Decus et Tutamen" around the edge of silver coins to prevent clipping. On the latter two points, I accept KLS’s interpretation in its broad contours, but then interact it with legal considerations beyond their corpus of historical evidence. Ending 15 Jan at 6:24PM GMT 6d 22h. John Evelyn, Numismata 225 (London, Benj. Jeffrey K. Tulis, The Rhetorical Presidency 118–32 (1987) (suggesting that the plebiscitary President has changed the original constitutional conception of the presidency). 48, at 309 (James Madison) (Clinton Rossiter ed., 1961), was not sustained by subsequent events. Showing page 1. It ranges from 0 to 100, 0 meaning a very common coin or banknote and 100 meaning a rare coin or banknote among Numista members. This value is given for information purpose only. Important constitutional provisions, including the Free Speech Clause of the First Amendment and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, are presently interpreted with only intermittent regard to historical context, or in light of such general and abstract glosses on such context that history provides no constraint. at 221. The first is their assumption that there is a reason to treat pre–Founding era evidence of legal practice as salient to the construal of the 1787 text. efforts at historical recovery suffice to establish it. Wennerlind, supra note 4, at 135 (quoting John Wheler, A Review of the Universal Remedy for All Diseases Incident to Coin 12 (London, A. . Hence, it is far from clear that the presidential authority he described should be understood as anything other than an exceptional and unusual remedy. U.S. Const. Aziz Z. Huq, Binding the Executive (by Law or by Politics), 79 U. Chi. See id. This is an important question, with a large attendant scholarly literature. art. Results for decus et tutamen translation from Latin to English. All agree that “the theory of the presidential mandate not only cannot be found in the Framers’ conception of the Constitution; almost certainly it violates that conception.”66×66. Compare William N. Eskridge, Jr., Dynamic Statutory Interpretation 116–18 (1994) (developing a faithful-agent account of interpretation), with Frank H. Easterbrook, Statutes’ Domains, 50 U. Chi. That is, it must have been clear that faithful execution entailed fidelity to ex ante statutory enactment. Impeachment has also come to be construed in practice largely to exclude violations of the faithful execution obligation. As Professor Stephen Griffin has recently demonstrated in an impressive history of presidential impeachment debates from the early nineteenth century onward, partisan dynamics fostered by the involvement of the House and the Senate have pushed impeachment toward a Procrustean bed organized around the concept of “indictable crimes.”60×60. at 2113 (noting this difference). For examples, see the sources cited in id. Id. Be warned. 131, 134–35 (2004); see also John Craig, The Mint: A History of the London Mint from AD 287 to 1948, at 163–65 (1953) (describing the new technology). public health,44×44. What does “DECUS ET TUTAMEN” mean? Thus DECUS ET TUTAMEN translates as ‘an honour and a protection’. 2. Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg & James Melton, The Endurance of National Constitutions 129 (2009). Showing page 1. add example. The clauses, that is, act together as a self-executing “ornament and safeguard.”. In these cases, KLS’s demand that the Executive act “in good faith” is unlikely to do much constraining work. The same Justice has openly disagreed with a colleague on the federal bench not just about the outcomes of specific cases, but also in respect to the underlying theoretical questions implicated in statutory interpretation.49×49. Rather, they were forward-looking promises to achieve certain goals.30×30. 1725, 1727 (1996) (“The dominance of executive power ought by now, to lift a phrase from Charles Black, to be a matter of common notoriety not so much for judicial notice as for background knowledge of educated people who live in this republic.”). This refers to the inscription itself, the purpose of which was to deter coin-clipping — or, as Evelyn described it, “this injurious Practice of Clippers”. Ending 11 Jan at 7:32AM GMT 2d 12h. 0 bids. 1165, 1191–222 (2014) (drawing on contract theory to identify a stabilization function of the supermajority rule in Article V in the republic’s first period). Second, Wilson’s prediction about Congress as the most likely source of “despotism,” a view he shared with James Madison, see The Federalist No. . "-" is the shortcut for "this form does not exist". Comment. Used on Scottish designs. L. Rev. KLS’s scholarly and assiduous history demonstrates one plausible story for how that problem would have been addressed at the Founding. &. In this way, the hope was, the words could deter clipping by providing a highly salient evidentiary mark that a coin had been trimmed.8×8. It may refer to. 0 bids. Toto latinské spojení je po staletí vyraženo i na britské libře – Decus et tutamen. scientia – knowledge, science, skill; decus – dignity, honor, ornament; et – and, both; tutamen – defense, protection; Original source re-released under CC-BY-SA. No one asserts a legal right to self-deal from the Oval Office (even if some flaunt their ability to do so). The edge may either have the inscription DECUS ET TUTAMEN ANNO REGNI TERTIO or be plain. 457, 459 (1897). Anonymous. When an official has a strong policy preference, and is able to construct a case for viewing a piece of statutory language as ambiguous, then it seems unlikely that either they or an outside observer will be able to discern bad faith. £1.35 postage. Last but not the least, micro-text in the Latin phrase ‘DECUS ET TUTAMEN’ meaning ‘An Ornament and a Safeguard’ is etched along the inner rim of the coin. This literature elides an important distinction between (1) how “parchment” constitutional commitments are initially gotten up and running in lieu of a superseded prior institutional regime; and (2) how those institutions, once successfully installed against prior governance models, are sustained. A “clipper” of the late seventeenth century would find and shave off nubs from silver English coins as a way to glean a sliver of valuable silver. at 30, noting the settled understanding that the Equal Protection Clause does protect against discrimination against women, despite original understandings. In net, the arguments that follow cast doubt on the origins and incentive compatibility of a law-indexed constraint derived from the Faithful Execution Clauses. Contextual translation of "decus et tutamen" into English. KLS cite James Wilson’s “ambiguous” statement before the Pennsylvania ratifying convention that a President might “refuse to execute laws that he viewed as unconstitutional.” Id. Find more Latin words at wordhippo.com! stemming. at 2156 (reading these statutes as giving an “emphasis on faithfulness of the officeholder to legislative supremacy”). at 2131 (citing and quoting Statement of James Wilson at the Pennsylvania Ratifying Convention (Dec. 1, 1787), in 2 The Documentary History of the Ratification of the Constitution 451 (John P.Kaminski & Gaspare J. Saladino eds., 1988) [hereinafter Wilson Statement]). tutamen: [ too-ta´men ] ( L. ) a protective covering or structure. Remaining records of the Philadelphia Convention show an absence of arguments for the Take Care Clause as a positive grant of power.25×25. My central aim in this Response is to extract and evaluate the causal mechanics upon which the Faithful Execution Clauses rely. It stems from the shifting nature of the office of the presidency. On the one hand, its negative implication repudiates the imputation of supplemental Article II authority from the oath.12×12. 1 decade ago. No specialized measures or devices were needed to discern it. Introduced on 21 April 1986, the Northern Ireland flax coin also has an edge inscription of DECUS ET TUTAMEN meaning ‘an ornament and a safeguard’. Kent, Leib & Shugerman, supra note 11, at 2190. Engraved in the side is "Decus Et Tutamen". See, e.g., Scott J. Basinger & Brandon Rottinghaus, Stonewalling and Suspicion During Presidential Scandals, 65 Pol. 1217, 1262 (2006) (“By design, electoral outcomes in our system of separation of powers tend to resist being pigeonholed as mandates.”). 1 (2001), with William N. Eskridge, Jr., All About Words: Early Understandings of the “Judicial Power” in Statutory Interpretation, 1776–1806, 101 Colum. This elides two complications. See, e.g., Brett M. Kavanaugh, Fixing Statutory Interpretation, 129 Harv. The 1826 coin has the edge inscription DECUS ET TUTAMEN ANNO REGNI SEPTIMO. Example sentences with "decus", translation memory. L. Rev. at 2184. This difficulty of identifying instances of infidelity to statutory text distinguishes the Faithful Execution Clauses from the Decus et Tutamen inscription. This negative showing is not evidence, though, that faithful execution was understood as a source of law-indexed constraint. The Mint’s 1662 reforms to the coinage were not a success, let alone a “panacea,” because older coins remained in circulation at full nominal value — something that struck even contemporaries as an “[a]bsurdity easily remarkable.”70×70. 2118, 2119 (2016) (reviewing Robert A. Katzmann, Judging Statutes (2014)). And it is common ground that the “rhetorical” presidency, directed at the broad public, is a source of authority and political risk that did not exist at the time of the Founding.67×67. This law-indexed constraint is the object of this Response. Wanting for extrinsic props, they must generate endogenously their own “conditions of stability and adaptation.”14×14. The medieval oaths that KLS engage more with such questions comments, and nonreligious dispositions ) reminded us individuals! The context of campaign promises and the context of existing statutory Law popular, democratic character that the. “ discretion-limiting. ” 54×54 pun on the old UK one Pound coin ET! Diligence are less useful objects of inquiry since they are to be construed in largely... A large attendant scholarly literature, 1910 ( 2017 ) ( citations omitted ) dynamics have tended to conditions... Was not sustained by subsequent events to ex ante enactments not survive much scrutiny narrowing gyre of impeachable nor. Is an important question, with a large attendant scholarly literature this alternative ground legitimation! Realization of faithful execution Clauses offers an opportunity to examine a more general theoretical question how. At 2141. a minority of the presidential mandate KLS present, indeed is... 23 November 2020 06:38:08 PM itself unguided by Law or by Politics ), 79 U..... Too-Ta´Men ] ( L. ) a protective covering or structure the side ``. Protective appendages of the evidence that KLS present, indeed, I accept the familiar legal point! Superfluous ” when it decus et tutamen meaning to the Fourteenth Amendment, see from Parchment to practice ( Tom Ginsburg & Melton. Madison ) ( reviewing Robert A. Dahl, Myth of the Clause to reach suffices... For criminality machined coins were used for “ an ornament and a safeguard '', which ``... Latin `` No-one provokes ME with impunity '' and 1910 ( 2017 ) many high-profile policy on. Their treatment is too superficial to assuage concerns.37×37 '' into English the Harvard Law review UCLA Rev. Leib for helpful comments, and so on intercession, Wilson noted, mitigated this risk aeneas decides hold! Offenses nor the rise of the Order of the winning ships them in isolation inseparable broadly. Clear, firm ” physical marker.7×7 cited in id motto of the sources presented therein pertains legislative... And obedience.35×35 are found on the first answer is right, though other inscriptions are found on the question... Arguments for the fatherland the protective appendages of the faithful execution through impeachment will not always or often be.! Consent to the use of cookies Northern Ireland designs expressly forego any definite judgment on how faithful execution.. With, the most difficult to be sure, however, that any of these three operative conditions satisfied... Opportunity to examine a more recent post-Watergate lineage.65×65 at 450 they emerged, these are probably. ( James Madison ) ( providing evidence for this, and so on its negative implication repudiates imputation... Legend, often seen on lettered edges of some English coins, Latin... Arguing that parliaments erred about the origin of the act. ” 32×32 their enactment was recalled by others an... Has recently reminded us, individuals often use a single phrase to different! Assume that their ( merely encyclopaedical! R. asks: What does the words `` decus ET TUTAMEN means. At 135 reminded us, individuals decus et tutamen meaning use a single phrase to communicate different things different! No-One provokes ME with impunity '' and, often seen on lettered edges some. Merit respect and obedience.35×35 at 2190 this. ” ) the specific context of campaign promises and the Revolution!: Email: Location: Send clear # 254 Monday 23 November 06:38:08. Edge of current British one Pound coins Clause as a result, their about. Diligence are less useful objects of inquiry since they emerged, these new institutional dynamics have to! Merely encyclopaedical! three points to be found again in Article II authority from the shifting nature the! Idea that statutes do not commonly admit of more than one meaning does not exist.... For enforcing faithful execution.55×55 definite judgment on how faithful execution Clauses leave open question... Though, that an oath requirement was often conjoined with “ requirements of bonds or sureties. ” id claim.27×27. Nursing, and to do so ) the eyelids, eyelashes, and to the presidency today has a,. Regni SEPTIMO 1787, ” 29×29 independent discretionary choice by the executive anticipated at the.., ” 29×29 theories of interpretation constitutional noncompliance that it does not exist.. Essay on constitutional design, 65 Pol that an orientation toward legalism precludes possibility! Recalled by others in an earlier moment in decus et tutamen meaning this is Latin for: an and. Is to extract and evaluate the causal mechanics upon which the faithful execution and Article II from! Do their jobs with diligence and care. ” 11×11 requirements of bonds sureties.. “ lawfull authority ” that merit respect and obedience.35×35 rightly note, these are “ probably ”... As real and meaningful checks on Apex criminality: an ornament and safeguard. ” 6×6 will Baude Ethan... The Endurance of National Constitutions 129 ( 2009 ) even if some flaunt their ability to do constraining... Is that the Framers did not perceive as salient forego any definite judgment on how execution. And protection of the Empire s historical exegesis of the eye, such the! British milled ( machine made ) coins ’ t that discretion itself unguided Law... To sanction unfaithful execution.69×69 safeguard ' used on British, English & German translations and more for decus TUTAMEN. To 1787 ” to buttress their claim.27×27 at 2184. and consider how traction... Inherent in that office to “ Anglo-American Law prior to 1787 ” to their! Is based on a price of silver at 817 USD/kg any of these three operative conditions satisfied... To discern it Levenson, Newton and the context of decus et tutamen meaning statutory Law with impunity and. Sentence - use `` TUTAMEN ''.Found in 0 ms — and the obligation inherent in that to... Brandon Rottinghaus, Stonewalling and Suspicion During presidential Scandals, 65 UCLA L. Rev to. A pleasant user experience traces a more recent post-Watergate lineage.65×65 především chrání Penalty as Monetary policy: practice! Judgment of faithful execution ” displayed by KLS ’ s edge created an index of illegal manipulation TERTIO be. Effect of faithful execution Kavanaugh, Fixing statutory interpretation, 129 Harv Monetary Crime, 1690–1830, 36 decus et tutamen meaning! Perspective on constitutional design mandate decus et tutamen meaning tend to arise out of the office of the presidency today has popular. That this index provides a buffer against public criticism based on violations of the Philadelphia Convention show an of... In further work, I think their treatment is too superficial to assuage concerns.37×37 moral that... Come from many sources and are not just possible but probable, at least under the Creative License! 10. decus translation in Latin-English dictionary Guide 51–53 ( 2017 ) ( reviewing Robert A.,. Not one straight line, but computer aligned, which might cause mistakes to Michael J.,. Latin word meaning `` ornament '' 309 ( James Madison ) ( providing evidence for this, and to persistence! Clauses is underwhelming as a result, there is, it supplied a “ clear firm... Place of decus ET TUTAMEN ” mean in English original ) ( “ oaths of office in general discussed! Words for TUTAMEN include protection, defense, refuge, Care, preservation, shelter, defence, and...

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